Art  and Society of Byzantium 

(A glancing overview of a 1100 year long culture)

(Map)            http://www.arthistory.upenn.edu/smr04/101910/Slide9.1.jpg

 

 

SIGNIFICANCE OF THE ERA. (How it affects our times and culture)

 

SCOPE OF STUDY

Offer context and insight into Byzantine artifacts that we will encounter on the tour

 

 Hosias Lukas –Monastery Katholikon Church, 946

http://www.arthistory.upenn.edu/smr04/101910/Slide9.37.jpg

Some of the Churches of Thessaloniki

http://www.faculty.de.gcsu.edu/~rviau/ids/Artworks/thesschurches.html

            Church of the Holy Apostles

St Panteliemont, 1300

St. Nicholas, 1300

St. Sophia, 700

 

                                    Byzantine Museum in Thessaloniki        

http://www.mbp.gr/html/en/index.htm

                                   

                                    Church of Holy Apostles, 1000 Agora in Athens

http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.cybercom.net/~kimbly/europe2003/Greece/Athens/slides/Church%2520of%2520the%2520Holy%2520Apostles%2520(1020%2520AD),%2520in%2520the%2520agora.JPG&imgrefurl=http://www.cybercom.net/~kimbly/europe2003/Greece/Athens/slides/Church%2520of%2520the%2520Holy%2520Apostles%2520(1020%2520AD),%2520in%2520the%2520agora.html&h=640&w=480&sz=192&tbnid=yfSzxsInrnsVTM:&tbnh=135&tbnw=101&hl=en&start=12&prev=/images%3Fq%3DHoly%2Bapostles%2Bathens%26svnum%3D10%26hl%3Den%26lr%3D%26rls%3DGGLG,GGLG:2006-08,GGLG:en%26sa%3DN

 

                                    Meteora Monastery, 1400-1500

http://home.arcor.de/atheneus/grklink/th_meteora2.jpg

http://www.greecetravel.com/meteora/monasteries.html

 

Lechaion Basilica, 600 , Corinth

http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.culture.gr/2/21/212/21206a/00/mb06a081.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.culture.gr/2/21/212/21206a/e212fa08.html&h=206&w=320&sz=26&tbnid=OATLzrhup7fvEM:&tbnh=72&tbnw=113&hl=en&start=3&prev=/images%3Fq%3DLechaion%2BBasilica%26svnum%3D10%26hl%3Den%26lr%3D%26sa%3DN

Possibly Pelagia Episkopale,   Santorini

http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.thu.no/santorini/sant0113.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.thu.no/santorini09.htm&h=219&w=338&sz=45&tbnid=-EpETRDJXHvztM:&tbnh=74&tbnw=115&hl=en&start=3&prev=/images%3Fq%3DPanagia%2BEpiskopi%26svnum%3D10%26hl%3Den%26lr%3D%26sa%3DG

 

 

BRIEF HISTORICAL BACKGROUND

(Map)  http://www.arthistory.upenn.edu/smr04/101910/Slide9.1.jpg

1.)    Early Christian and Superpower/ Empire stage 324-650CE

 

 

2.)    Eastern Dark Ages  650-780CE

 

 

3.)Medieval State as satellite of Arab superpower 780-1204CE

 

4.)LateByzantium – small tributary nation state 1261-1263CE

 

CULTURE OF BYZANTIUM

(Arch of Constantine, Rome)

http://www.arthistory.upenn.edu/smr04/101910/Slide8.42.jpg

Constantine and Constantinople

Hagia Eirene (ext)

http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.patriarchate.org/ecumenical_patriarchate/chapter_4/assets/images/Hagia_Eirene_161.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.patriarchate.org/ecumenical_patriarchate/chapter_4/html/hagia_eirene.html&h=351&w=525&sz=65&tbnid=g-TwizvhqEPjzM:&tbnh=86&tbnw=129&hl=en&start=1&prev=/images%3Fq%3DHagia%2BEirene%26svnum%3D10%26hl%3Den%26lr%3D%26rls%3DGGLG,GGLG:2006-08,GGLG:en%26sa%3DN

Hagia Eirene (int)

http://www.iksv.org/muzik/i/2005/mekan_ayairini.jpg

 

 Hagia Sophia (ext)

http://www.byzantines.net/byzcathculture/images/hagiasophia_fl.jpg

            (int)

http://www.abcgallery.com/list/sophia2.JPG

 

ARCHITECTURE

Questions

 

 

East to West contrast

Isenhiem Alterpiece

http://images.encarta.msn.com/xrefmedia/sharemed/targets/images/pho/t014/T014894A.jpg

 

 

Pantocrator

http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://people.hofstra.edu/faculty/martha_hollander/GalleryPictures/FullSizedImages/EarlyChristian,Byzantine/Pantocrator.JPG&imgrefurl=http://people.hofstra.edu/faculty/martha_hollander/GalleryPictures/EarlyChristian,Byzantine.html&h=495&w=575&sz=156&tbnid=-6HpvRzytR248M:&tbnh=113&tbnw=132&hl=en&start=51&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dpantocrator%26start%3D40%26svnum%3D10%26hl%3Den%26lr%3D%26rls%3DGGLG,GGLG:2006-08,GGLG:en%26sa%3DN

 

Kinds of Churches

 

Early to Late Contrasts in form and function

            Sacred Architecture

 

            Church Decoration

 

            Icons

 

Early form and function in Architecture

Basilica plan

http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.angelfire.com/on3/greece/basilica&imgrefurl=http://www.angelfire.com/on3/greece/3.html&h=300&w=309&sz=22&tbnid=QuAL0iR1PTNTdM:&tbnh=108&tbnw=112&hl=en&start=60&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dearly%2Bchristian%2Bbasilica%26start%3D40%26svnum%3D10%26hl%3Den%26lr%3D%26rls%3DGGLG,GGLG:2006-08,GGLG:en%26sa%3DN

 

early sanctuary plan

http://liternet.bg/publish9/mkoeva/nasledstvo/ikonostas/04.jpg

 

http://home.uchicago.edu/~bdcline/AAM/html/christian_basilicas.htm

 

St Peter’s Rome( drawing), and St Paul’s Outside the Wall (int)

http://www.arthistory.upenn.edu/smr04/101910/Slide9.14.jpg

 

Thessaloniki

http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.macedonian-heritage.gr/HellenicMacedonia/media/thumb120/b2211a.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.macedonian-heritage.gr/HellenicMacedonia/en/topic_27_1.html&h=80&w=120&sz=4&tbnid=HFdffhj5e_4jLM:&tbnh=55&tbnw=83&hl=en&start=18&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dthessaloniki%2B%2Bbasilica%2B%26svnum%3D10%26hl%3Den%26lr%3D%26rls%3DGGLG,GGLG:2006-08,GGLG:en%26sa%3DG

 

 Sant' Apollinare in Classe,  530, Ravenna

http://web.kyoto-inet.or.jp/org/orion/eng/hst/byzantz/apollina.html

 

 

Galla Placidia

http://www.arthistory.upenn.edu/smr04/101910/Slide9.18.jpg 

 

Hagia Sophia Interior and Exterior

http://www.ou.edu/class/ ahi4263/byzhtml/p04-02.html

 

Florence

http://www.calzaiuoli.it/thumbs/duomo01.jpg

 

Rome

http://snowmass.stanford.edu/~fred/trip/Rome/r7.jpg

 

 

 

Later form and function in Architecture

 

plans:

Mirozhhski Monastery 1153                   

z  Miroshki plan.jpg

 Holy Apostles, Athens 1000

z holy apos plan.jpg

Hosias Loukas  1020

z hos lou plan.jpg

Mother of God, Pammakaristos: Main sanctuary as dome on  barrel-vaulted cross.

                                                    Funeral Chapel as square on 4 columns.

http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://rubens.anu.edu.au/new/turkey_ebersolt/eglises_de_constantinople/theotokos_pammakaristos_fethiye_camii/115.JPG&imgrefurl=http://rubens.anu.edu.au/new/turkey_ebersolt/eglises_de_constantinople/theotokos_pammakaristos_fethiye_camii/&h=1920&w=2560&sz=1247&tbnid=TbBjGVRdhwb-8M:&tbnh=112&tbnw=150&hl=en&start=32&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dpammakaristos%26start%3D20%26svnum%3D10%26hl%3Den%26lr%3D%26rls%3DGGLG,GGLG:2006-08,GGLG:en%26sa%3DN

 

squinches or pendentives

http://www.myeport.com/published/u/hs/uhse002/collection/13/12/upload.jpg

Pendentive

http://www.yourdictionary.com/images/ahd/jpg/A4pendtv.jpg

Squinch

http://www.yourdictionary.com/images/ahd/jpg/A4squinc.jpg

 

Interior of Mother of God, Pammakaristos
http://www.istanbulguide.net/istguide/im/divers/fet2.jpg

 

Hosias Loukas plan    

http://www.brynmawr.edu/Acads/Cities/wld/00990/00990b.jpg

 

 

 

 

 

Meteora

http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.grecian.net/GREECE/thessaly/trikala/meteora/meteora_01.gif&imgrefurl=http://www.grecian.net/GREECE/thessaly/trikala/meteora/metteora.htm&h=202&w=200&sz=17&tbnid=LzhZjBRjSQoo3M:&tbnh=99&tbnw=98&hl=en&start=2&prev=/images%3Fq%3DMonastery%2Bof%2BAgios%2BNikolaos%2BAnapafsas%26svnum%3D10%26hl%3Den%26lr%3D%26sa%3DN

 

 

CHURCH DECORATION

Visual Conventions and their Function

Memling 1463 (Flemish)

http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.join2day.com/abc/M/memling/memling8.JPG&imgrefurl=http://www.abcgallery.com/M/memling/memling8.html&h=724&w=594&sz=49&tbnid=y_hmhjgb2PBOlM:&tbnh=139&tbnw=114&hl=en&start=27&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dpresentation%2Bin%2Bthe%2Btemple%2B%26start%3D20%26svnum%3D10%26hl%3Den%26lr%3D%26rls%3DGGLG,GGLG:2006-08,GGLG:en%26sa%3DN

 

Icon  from the Balkans 1400-1500

http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/images/h2/h2_31.67.8.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/ho/08/eusb/ho_31.67.8.htm&h=316&w=300&sz=64&tbnid=kwtIORJswdsLhM:&tbnh=113&tbnw=107&hl=en&start=7&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dpresentation%2Bin%2Bthe%2Btemple%2BByzantine%26svnum%3D10%26hl%3Den%26lr%3D%26rls%3DGGLG,GGLG:2006-08,GGLG:en%26sa%3DG

 

Reverse perspective   (website)

http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.hp.uab.edu/image_archive/ulj/mosaic08.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.hp.uab.edu/image_archive/ulj/uljc.html&h=449&w=303&sz=44&tbnid=HCIfCDD8Wn1qqM:&tbnh=124&tbnw=83&hl=en&start=195&prev=/images%3Fq%3DByzantine%2Bmosaic%26start%3D180%26svnum%3D10%26hl%3Den%26lr%3D%26rls%3DGGLG,GGLG:2006-08,GGLG:en%26sa%3DN

 

 

 

 

Early forms of decoration

Mosaic at Ravenna

http://www.hp.uab.edu/image_archive/ulj/mosaic08.jpg

 

Later forms of Decoration

 

Processional of saints

Monreale, Sicily
z procession.jpg

 

Nave and lower walls

Cefalu, Sicily

http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://faculty.cua.edu/pennington/Naples/LectureTwo/cefalumosaic3.JPG&imgrefurl=http://faculty.cua.edu/pennington/Naples/LectureTwo/CefaluMosaic.htm&h=1156&w=828&sz=567&tbnid=kYs5Eu59aJItdM:&tbnh=150&tbnw=107&hl=en&start=8&prev=/images%3Fq%3DCefal%25C3%25B9%2Bmosaics%26svnum%3D10%26hl%3Den%26lr%3D%26rls%3DGGLG,GGLG:2006-08,GGLG:en%26sa%3DN

 

            Vaults and Dome

St Paul Outside the Wall, Rome

http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://puffin.creighton.edu/bucko/travel/02_14_99_05.jpg&imgrefurl=http://puffin.creighton.edu/bucko/travel/02_14_99_a.html&h=240&w=320&sz=22&tbnid=Hy955gIpeeMeAM:&tbnh=84&tbnw=113&hl=en&start=311&prev=/images%3Fq%3DByzantine%2Bmosaic%26start%3D300%26svnum%3D10%26hl%3Den%26lr%3D%26rls%3DGGLG,GGLG:2006-08,GGLG:en%26sa%3DN

 

Dome and Drum: the Selected narratives

Hosias Lukas narratives e.g. Nativity and Baptism
x narrat.jpg

 

Hosias Loukas -website

http://www.greekmonasteries.net/monasteries/loukas

 

Templon (Iconostasis)

Iconostasis
z iconos.jpg
 

Apse of the Hema

theotokos

http://www.doaks.org/CoinExhibition/RepresentationV/EnthroneEnlarged.jpg

 

http://www.brynmawr.edu/Acads/Cities/wld/00990/00990f.jpg

 

Narthex

footwashing mosaic

http://www.coolschool.k12.or.us/courses/115100/lessons/assignments/08/images/al08k.jpg

 

Issues of style: characteristics and influences

Detail of arch of Constantine

http://www.arthistory.upenn.edu/smr04/101910/Slide8.43.jpg

 

Stilcho with wife and son, Ivory, Rome c. 400

http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.udel.edu/ArtHistory/nees/209/images/7-01.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.udel.edu/ArtHistory/nees/209/images.html&h=600&w=460&sz=145&tbnid=aEUcKyNoO1ZvcM:&tbnh=133&tbnw=101&hl=en&start=60&prev=/images%3Fq%3DByzantine%2BIvories%26start%3D40%26svnum%3D10%26hl%3Den%26lr%3D%26sa%3DN

 
Constantine head
http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/ikon/brown1.gif

philosopher becomes evangelist,
http://www.skriptorium.at/catalog/images/bm__05_byzantinisches_Evang.jpg
 

Horus and Isis  translates into Mary and Jesus

http://www.unf.edu/classes/freshmancore/core1images/isisandhorus-3rdC-coptic-maryandjesus-5-6C-fayum.jpg

 

ICONS

 

Precedents and Early forms and function

Egyptian Military god with Heron   200 CE

x heron.jpg

 

Christ and St. Menas sixth century

http://moses.creighton.edu/harmless/bibliographies_for_theology/Images/ChristStMenas.jpg

 

St Peter, Sixth Century

http://www.mlahanas.de/Greeks/Arts/Painting/Fajum3.jpg

 

Egyptian Portrait in Roman Style 200CE

http://www.contracosta.cc.ca.us/Art/Images/ByzantineIconStPeter.jpg

 

Blessing  Christ 6th century

http://www.unf.edu/classes/freshmancore/core1images/jesus-icon-sinai6c.jpg

 

 

Iconoclasm 736-867CE

 

 

 

Later forms and functions

St Nicholas 10th century

http://www.ou.edu/class/ahi4263/byzslides/227-2.jpg

 

Baptism and Nativity Hosias Lukas

x narrat.jpg

 

Diagram of iconostasis-website

http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.ou.edu/class/ahi4263/byzslides/055-1.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.ou.edu/class/ahi4263/byzhtml/p02-08.html&h=283&w=360&sz=27&tbnid=aKFVvep6I3L3FM:&tbnh=91&tbnw=117&hl=en&start=8&prev=/images%3Fq%3Diconostasis%2Bbyzantine%2Bgreek%26svnum%3D10%26hl%3Den%26lr%3D%26rls%3DGGLG,GGLG:2006-08,GGLG:en

 

Chalice

http://www.mcah.columbia.edu/ecb/images/ecb_chalice.gif

 

Cross

http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.etciu.com/MUSEO/MV/ARTE%2520ARCAICA/ARTE%2520BIZANTINA/BIZ_13.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.etciu.com/MUSEUM/M_HTML/ARCHAIC%2520%2520ART/BYZANTINE/BIZ13.html&h=500&w=384&sz=28&tbnid=w3yEB_GsuLoNbM:&tbnh=127&tbnw=97&hl=en&start=100&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dbyzantine%2Bcross%26start%3D80%26svnum%3D10%26hl%3Den%26lr%3D%26rls%3DGGLG,GGLG:2006-08,GGLG:en%26sa%3DN

 

OTHER NOTABLE FORMS OF MATERIAL CULTURE

bracelet
x bracel.jpg

 images of country life

x country.jpg

 

personal boxes

http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/images/h2/h2_47.100.33.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/ho/05/wae/ho_47.100.33.htm&h=303&w=500&sz=61&tbnid=PNk-qgLfzpPNPM:&tbnh=76&tbnw=127&hl=en&start=29&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dbyzantine%2B%2Bboxes%26start%3D20%26svnum%3D10%26hl%3Den%26lr%3D%26rls%3DGGLG,GGLG:2006-08,GGLG:en%26sa%3DN

 

Ivory box

http://www.prolocoveroli.it/images/foto/veroli_casket3.jpg

 

 

Sarcophogus of Junius Bassus

http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.tronchin.com/Art1A/lecture17_files/image004.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.tronchin.com/Art1A/lecture17.htm&h=313&w=576&sz=51&tbnid=GHSKCFDeyAwJrM:&tbnh=71&tbnw=132&hl=en&start=8&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dbyzantine%2B%2Bsarcophagus%26svnum%3D10%26hl%3Den%26lr%3D%26rls%3DGGLG,GGLG:2006-08,GGLG:en%26sa%3DG